• knows how to use electronic aids, and he/she knows about their reliability and limitations as complementary means to ensure safe navigation.
• is able to determine the vessel’s position with the help of electronic navigational aids.
• understand the principal structure of satellite positioning systems (GNSS).
• is aware of limitations and errors of GNSS systems and their level of position accuracy.
• knows how to use the echo-sounder and how to apply the information correctly.
• has knowledge of the functioning of the magnetic and gyro-compasses.
• is able to determine errors in magnetic and gyro-compasses using celestial and terrestrial methods and to take such errors into account.
• has knowledge of the steering control systems, operating instructions and change-over from manual steering to autopilot and vice versa. He/she knows how to adjust the controls for optimal performance.